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Department of Geography & Environmental Sustainability at SUNY Oneonta
317 Milne Library
(607) 436-3459
Fax: (607) 436-3438

Dr. Wendy Lascell

Jill Stafford

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Geography Courses


GEOG 100 Introductory Geography 3 s.h.
Geography is concerned with the arrangement and location of phenomena on the face of the earth and with the associations of phenomena that give character to places. This course introduces students to geographic concepts and methods, and to materials fundamental to the understanding of the earth’s various physical and human landscapes. Students are advised to complete GEOG 100 or its equivalent before enrolling in a 200- or 300-level course.Offered Fall and Spring. (LA, SS3)

GEOG 101 World Regional Geography 3 s.h.
World Regional Geography examines the spatial distribution of human societies and culture and the natural environment in the context of world regions. It investigates the characteristics that define world regions and how they are distinguished from each other. We live in an increasingly global society that necessitates international awareness and a global conscience in order to advance a sustainable planet. Utilizing geographic concepts of place and region, this course is a lens to understanding contemporary rapid cultural, environmental, political, and economic transformations. Each world region is extremely vibrant, and encompasses a great deal of diversity among commonalities. Thus, an awareness of the diversity of ideas and practices found in world regions will emerge. (LA)

GEOG 103 Introduction to Environmental & Sustainable Studies 3 s.h.
This course is built on the principle that the social sciences - both as a body of knowledge and as the basis for structuring human societal norms and behaviors - must be applied to assess and to address the direct and indirect influences of human activities on the integrity of the Earth's natural systems. The course examines the interactions between environmental and social processes from the perspective of sustainability, introducing the students to theory on sustainability, the origins of such thinking, the requirements of such a design, and how 'local' regional and international bodies are pursuing sustainability as a solution to the vast array of environmental, economic, and social injustices throughout the world. Additionally, students will gain insight into how sustainability efforts are playing out in communities and cities across the world, and the challenges encountered in such efforts. In this way, students will learn the theoretical foundation of sustainability, the social and environmental processes at play, and how efforts to create sustainable communities and/or develop sustainably are playing out 'on the ground'. (LA, S2)

GEOG 145 Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications 1-3 s.h. 
This self-study course consists of 26 instructional modules de-signed to introduce fundamental concepts on remote sensing. Completion of all 26 self-study modules provides a broad over-view of the field of remote sensing and carries three credit hours. Modules can be organized around certain topics and/or applications based on student interest. Intended to meet the needs for beginning students as well as advanced students in remote sensing. (LA)

GEOG 194 Special Topics in Geography 1-6 s.h.
Study of an area not covered by regular course offerings. Offered according to interest of instructor, request of students, and availability of instructor.

GEOG 201 Physical Geography of the Global Environment 3 s.h. 
Explore earth, water, air, and life as the global arena upon which mountains, floods, tornados, plants, animals and people coexist. The physical environment is the stage where human activities and the dance of life unfold. Physical geography is the "big picture" that investigates how global natural processes work and how they function as interrelated systems. This course is organized by the Earth's four mega systems or spheres - atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Each sphere is examined within the context of weather, climate, biomes, soils, and landforms. Together, the inputs of energy, air, water, and earth into the living planet determine the value of the environment from which life is supported. Humans have the capacity to squander and steward resources. The Earth is our habitat; accordingly, we impact and modify our home. Throughout the course, in the context of case studies, students will learn how humans change the physical environment and that it is our responsibility to live sustainably. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 202 Regional Climatology 3 s.h. 
Climate is analyzed and classified on a distributional basis according to the various geographic systems. Regional comparisons are made on both a macro- and micro-climatic scale. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 206 Environmental Issues 3 s.h.
Study of the effect of human activities on the worldwide ecosystem. An examination of the issues of human over-population atmospheric warming, chemical pollution, and agriculture. Strategies of land planning and resource conservation will be considered. (cross-listed as ENVS 201 Environmental Issues) 
Prerequisite: ENVS 101or ENVS 110

GEOG 210 Economic Geography and Sustainability 3 s.h. 
The location of economic activity and the spatial variation of such basic elements as land resources, population, and technology are analyzed. Levels of development, patterns of production, consumption, and exchange, and analysis of population problems, selected economies, regionalization and planning strategies are also considered. Comparisons of More Developed Countries (MDCs) and Less Developed Countries (LDCs). Detailed examination of global energy resources and new technologies for their utilization. Detailed look at sustainable approaches to resource consumption and economic development.  (LA, S2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 211 Transportation Planning for Smart Growth 3 s.h.
An analysis of the spatial patterns of transportation. Work focuses on a description of transport networks and modes, and the movements of goods, people, and information. The course considers the principles and models governing spatial interaction and their utility in planning. Also, detailed examination of the importance of principles and practices of sustainability and smart growth in the design, creation and operation of modern transportation systems. (LA)
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 217 Tourism: Geography and Planning 3 s.h. 
This course examines the global patterns (spatial characteristics) of tourism and the significance of planning in popular tourist regions. Topics include the nature, history, growth, and impacts of different types of tourism and tourists. Emphasis will be placed on contemporary tourism trends such as ecotourism, heritage tour-ism, urban tourism, coastal tourism and gambling tourism. The problems and prospects for tourism will be examined through a consideration of a variety of countries and regions, both developed and developing. Global case studies will be used to further explain the types, consequences, and issues of tourism. Students will be exposed to the significant contribution which geographers have made to the field of tourism studies. (LA) 
Prerequisites: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 220 Political Geography 3 s.h. 
This course helps students to understand the relationships between political decision/ issues and the various human and physical aspects of geography. Students analyze political geography topics at the international, national, and local levels; use geographic tools (maps, graphs, charts, aerial photos, and satellite imagery) to analyze and evaluate political geography issues; and learn to search for political processes that cause geographic patterns to appear in the landscape. (LA) 
Prerequisites: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 225 Population Geography and the Environment 3 s.h. 
Population Geography and the Environment is concerned with planning for the survival and sustainability of our global population AND the well-being of our Earth's environs. This course is designed around three parts: (1) a historical understanding of how we have reached 7 billion people on this planet (and some historical "hiccups" along the way that temporarily set population back), (2) a look at the major threats and concerns that face our population as well as those environments most affected by human settlement, and (3) what is being done technologically to help sustain all of us and Earth for now and the future. This course will include coverage of most of the following topics: super volcanoes, the early spread of humans, toilets & sanitation, what people eat, asteroids & mass extinctions, nuclear weapons & nuclear power plants, skyscrapers, AIDS, garbage, tornadoes, birth control, endangered species, and future cars. (LA, S2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 227 Sustainable Urban Planning 3 s.h. 
A survey of urban spatial planning emphasizing land use, zoning and subdivision controls, transportation, housing and development programs, and design. Examination of programs to both stimulate and control growth of development. Analysis of theories and practice of urban planning. Examination of new approaches to city planning based upon principles of sustainability and smart growth.  (LA)
Prerequisities: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 230 Geography of Culture and Environment 3 s.h. 
This is a course that encourages students to more actively engage in the lifelong endeavor of exploring, analyzing, and evaluating the human and cultural landscapes of this world. There are great changes taking place on the face of the earth as human population expands and as our changing behaviors and technologies revolutionize our relationship with our surroundings. This course focuses on understanding the impact of culture and human societies on the natural world and the creation of human landscapes that reflect our needs, beliefs, and values. Course topics include the spatial dimensions of religion and language, settlement patterns, and changes associated with the agricultural and industrial revolutions. (LA, S2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 231 Religion, Spirit, and Environment 3 s.h. 
This course examines the many relationships between religion, spirit, and environment. Topics include religious realms and regions, the historical evolution of religious landscapes, the impact of religion on environmental attitudes and practices, and pilgrimage. The course will explore sacred space as it is interpreted in Hindu, Buddhist, Shinto, Taoist, Islamic, Christian, and various indigenous religious traditions. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 232 Coastal Zone Management 3 s.h.
This course is an examination of the coastal zone from an environmental perspective. The interactions between physical processes and human actions will be investigated. The course will cover the problems and possible solutions of managing coastal resources. Geographic factors will be examined such as: human population and settlement, resource utilization, coastal policy and planning, environmental management, and the conflict between natural processes and human use. Students will learn how to interpret the cultural landscape of coastal environments. Emphasis will be on North America, but global examples will also be included.
Prerequisite:  GEOG 100 or SoS

GEOG 233 Geography of Urban Environments 3 s.h
An analysis of the spatial dimensions of urbanization and the impact of urban growth on the American landscape. Concerned with the spatial development of cities, urbanization and the environment, spatial arrangements of urban activities, and the quality of urban life. Designed to help students to understand better the urban milieu in which they reside. Special attention is given to urban planning issues and methods. Practice in writing analytical reports on urban issues is stressed. (LA, S2, WS2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 234 Global Perspectives in Gender and Nature 3 s.h.
This course examines the role of gender in nature – society relations and more specifically in societal understanding and interaction with nature.  The course draws from diverse theoretical frameworks such as feminist political ecology to interrogate historical and contemporary spatial dimensions of issues such as distribution, access and management of natural resources as well as the disproportionate vulnerability to environmental change along gender lines.  By drawing on case studies from around the world, this course will also discuss the diverse ways in which women are involved in environmental and social justice movements and the implications of such involvement for environmental sustainability.  Examples of case studies that will form the basis of class discussions include the Greenbelt Movement in Kenya and the Chipko Movement in India. (cross-listed as WMST 234)
Prerequisite:  GEOG 100 or SoS

GEOG 236 Environmental Planning 3 s.h. 
Principles and practices of environmental planning are examined, particularly in rural and suburban areas. Attention is focused on farmland preservation, clustering, design standards, greenways, and open space preservation. (LA) 
Prerequisites: GEOG 100 or ENVS 110 or SoS

GEOG 237 Environmental Impact Analysis 3 s.h. 
This course introduces students to the broad range of environ-mental impacts that can result from poorly or improperly planned developments. Students will learn about the National Environ-mental Policy Act (NEPA), and in NYS, the State Environmental quality Review Act (SEQRA). Students will learn about the environmental resources needed in environmental impact analysis, how to evaluate these resources and possible detriment to such in the face of proposed project/developments and how to write and critique environmental assessment forms and environmental impact statements. (LA) 
Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or SoS.

GEOG 238 Sustainable Development in Developing Countries 3 s.h. 
This course explores the spatial expression and persistence of the processes which generate and perpetuate underdevelopment. The course begins by analyzing theories of sustainable development. Key paradigms or ways of thinking in sustainable development are used to organize the course: colonialism, economic theory, industrialization, measures of development (Human Development Index and others), strategies of sustainable development, environmental sustainability, and globalization. Upon establishing a foundation, developing countries and regions of the world are identified and investigated. Regions range in place and scale from Appalachia to Africa. Multiple case studies that ad-dress important pitfalls and advances in development such as demography, geo-politics, agriculture and rural landscapes, urbanization, mining, industry, transportation, and technology are considered. A consistent theme woven throughout the course is that of resources and the environment. Countries that seek to develop at the cost of the environment are not sustainable. This is a unique opportunity for students to become involved in the pursuit of global higher living standards, improved health, poverty abatement, and environmental preservation. Ultimately, the goal of development is to provide all citizens in all countries the ability to enjoy a free, happy, and healthy life in a safe environment. (LA, S2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 239 Digital Earth 3 s.h.
This course is designed to introduce students to the multiple tools and resources used to model, map, and visualize our world and the distribution of both physical and human phenomena. Students will be introduced to certain popular geospatial technologies like geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and remote sensing (RS). Additionally, students will learn about the social dimensions of these technologies, including questions of privacy, data accuracy, surveillance, spatial analysis. Offered once every other year.
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 240 Cartographic Principles 3 s.h. 
An introduction to mapmaking. Lectures cover the history of cartography, cartographic theory, map type and design, data collection and analysis procedures, coordinate systems, projections, and map reading and interpretation. Laboratory exercises related to the above topics will be undertaken. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 241 Geographic Information Systems: Principles and Methods 3 s.h. 
Examines the geographic and data-processing methods associated with the use and development of geographic information systems (GIS). Topics include geographical data selection, analysis, and presentation using various spatial data-processing hardware and software techniques. A "hands-on" approach to different GIS methods and uses comprises an essential part of the course. 
Prerequisites: SoS and GEOG 240 or 245 or 3 s.h. in computer science

GEOG 243 Geographic Information Systems: ArcGIS 3 s.h. 
This course provides the conceptual overview and hands-on experience to understand geographic information systems (GIS) and perform GIS tasks using the software package ArcGIS. ArcGIS is an integrated collection of GIS software products for building a complete GIS to undertake various problem-solving applications. (LA) 
Prerequisite: GEOG 240, or GEOG 241

GEOG 244 Environmental Applications of GIS 3 s.h.
his course is designed to teach advanced methods of using geographic information systems for the spatial analysis and geo-visualization of environmental issues.  Course lectures/discussions and laboratory exercises are designed to introduce students to the multiple ways in which GIS can be used to discover, assess, and resolve environmental problems encountered in various urban and rural settings.  Students will gain critical skills in data acquisition, creation, as well as modeling.  Students will learn current techniques and methods used to effectively address practical environmental problems concerning natural hazards, environmental justice, land use/land cover change, pollution, contaminant transport, wetlands, and more.  Each student will learn the ways in which GIS is well suited to visualize and analyze environmental problems from the 'local' scale to global scale issues such as climate change.  Students will learn where to acquire data and will gain experience in developing research questions and appropriate methods to effectively perform a host of spatial analyses.     
Prerequisities: GEOG 100 or ENVS 101

GEOG 245 Remote Sensing: Aerial Photo Interpretation 3 s.h. 
An introduction to aerial photographs and related forms of remote sensing such as infrared and satellite imagery. Lectures cover the theory behind aerial photography and remote sensing, cameras and sensing systems, photogrammetric techniques, image enhancement and applications in geography, planning, environ-mental monitoring, and other fields. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 246 Airborne Remote Sensing Systems 3 s.h. 
This course introduces the principles, equipment, and techniques used to obtain and interpret aerial photography. The course examines the use of aerial photography in scientific research and its application to geographic, environmental, and planning problems at the local and regional levels. Students will plan and fly an air-borne mission to acquire imagery using modern equipment such as UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, AKA "drones"). Photogrammetric techniques will be used to interpret the photography and study local problems. The class emphasizes the need for being able to think in a spatial context for a variety of environmental applications. 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 248 Remote Sensing of Environments 3 s.h
Course examines the methods for analyzing environmental data from earth-oriented satellites. Applications in such diverse areas as agriculture, land use, urban and rural planning, geology, and resource management are examined. A "hands-on" approach using satellite data composes a significant part of the course. (LA) 
Prerequisites: SoS and 3 s.h. of GEOG coursework. (GEOG 245 recommended)

GEOG 250 Historical Geography of the United States 3.s.h. 
An exploration of the impact which change has on the physical and human environments and the various ways in which geographers attempt to assess the nature of this impact. Discussion will employ a cross-cultural framework and focus upon themes such as urbanization, domestication, frontiers and population movements. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 251 Food, Society & Environment 3 s.h.
Food is a critical aspect of human existence and its production and distribution lies at the core of the interaction between society and the environment.  This course adopts a critical approach to examining the current issues and debates pertaining to the production, processing and marketing of food as well as the local and global political economy of access to food.  A central theme in these discussions will be the challenge of environmental sustainability in the food production and distribution system, while drawing examples from the local, national and global levels.  The course material is organized into two sections.  The first section examines the political economy of the global food system while the second part focuses on some of the local and national food justice issues that include production, access and consumption. 
(cross-listed as SOC 251 and ENVS 251).
Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or ENVS 101 or ENVS 110 or SOC 101

GEOG 260 Geography of the United States and Canada 3 s.h. 
An exploration of the various regions of the United States and Canada with emphasis on the interrelationship of the human and natural resources, and the development of land use and settlement patterns. Special emphasis on planning problems such as urbanization, population, and environmental impact. Provides students with an understanding of the historical development and settlement of the American landscape. Practice in writing analytical reports centered on maps displaying current and and historical patterns is emphasized. (LA, S2, WS2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 262 Geography of New York State and the Northeast 3 s.h. 
The patterns of land forms, soils, climate, and natural resources. Industrial development. Population distribution. Problems of urbanization. Studies of selected areas. Field trip. (LA) 
Prerequisite: SoS

GEOG 266 Geography of Latin America 3 s.h. 
A regional study of Meso, and South America, based on the physical and cultural geographic factors. The Europeanization of the Western Hemisphere is studied with special emphasis to the influence of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) patterns of settlement and land use. Contemporary demographic and economic problems, their significance, and political implications within the region are analyzed. Practice in writing analytical reports on various geographic patterns within the region is stressed. (LA, S2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 268 United States Environmental History 3 s.h.
Study of the history of environmental perception in the United States, from 15th – 21st centuries. Topics include settlement patterns, land management policies, environmental degradation and disasters, and the environmental movement.  Concepts include nationalism, expansionism, romanticism, conservation, “wilderness,” the “Land Ethic”, environmental justice, ecotourism, ecosystem services, and sustainability.  Special emphasis on Adirondack Park. 
(cross- listed as ENVS 268 United States Environmental History)
Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or ENVS 101 or ENVS 110 or SoS 

GEOG 270 Geography of Europe 3 s.h. 
A regional survey of the cultural, economic, and physical geography of Europe. Particular attention will be given to the geography of languages, religions, cities, political systems and economic development. Special focus also upon the European Union, the NATO Alliance, the Nordic Council and other important institutions.  (LA, S2)
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 274 Geography of Asia 3 s.h. 
This course deals with the physical setting, the cultural patterns, and the changing political and economic geography of Asia (excluding Russia). Various problems and potentials will be examined in an attempt toward a more basic understanding of the processes of change that are radically transforming the Asian scene. Practice in writing analytical reports on various geographic patterns within the region is stressed. (LA, HO2, WS2) 
Prerequisite: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 277 Geography of Southeast Asia 3 s.h. 
An examination of the distinctive features of the Southeast Asian environment and the socio-economic structure of the nations of the region. Special emphasis on the issues of critical concern to the contemporary economics of the region, such as population problems, land reform, ethnic pluralism, resource utilization, and modernization. (LA, HO2) 
Prerequisites: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 279 Geography of China, Japan, and Korea 3 s.h. 
This course deals with the human and physical geography of China, Taiwan, Japan, and North and South Korea. Special attention is paid to environmental issues, problems of sustainable development, and cultural pluralism. Emphasis is also put on the historical development of cultural landscapes and ways in which these countries are assuming increasingly important roles in the global community. Practice in writing analytical reports on various geographic patterns within the region is stressed. (LA, HO2, WS2) 
Prerequisites: SoS or GEOG 100

GEOG 294 Special Topics in Geography 3-6 s.h. 
This course permits a group of students the opportunity to study, in depth, an area in geography not covered by regular course offerings, or to explore new topics. Topics and instructors will be announced prior to preregistration. (LA) 
Prerequisites: SoS and 3 s.h. GEOG and/or related courses

GEOG 299 Independent Study in Geography 1-6 s.h. 
Readings in specialized topics in geography under regular staff supervision. (LA) 
Prerequisites: SoS, appropriate 200-level GEOG course and permission of instructor

GEOG 303 Soil Genesis, Terrain Analysis, and Sustainable Practices 3 s.h.
A overview of the genesis, function and sustainable practices of soils. The course will analyze the physical, biological, and chemical properties of soils as they are influenced by slope, morphology, and hydrology of the surrounding terrain. It will stress the impact of human activities on the landscape and issues of soil degradation. Students will evaluate the composition and physical properties of local soils. Field trips will be incorporated to help students gain an appreciation of how soils are influenced by, and also influence, the landscape in which they exist. (LA)
Prerequisites: ENVS 101 or ENVS 110 or GEOG 201

GEOG 304 Biogeography of a Diverse Planet 3 s.h. 
Biography is the study of the distribution patterns and relation-ships of plants and animals and their environment. The field of biogeography borrows and extends principles from physical geography, ecology, biology, climatology, and geology. There are many millions of species on Earth, and each of these species occupies a specific habitat or home in which it can live and reproduce. All organisms live within an ecological optimum. With the possible exception of humans, no species is globally distributed. Each species' distribution is controlled by a unique set of factors, including temporal, biological, geomorphic, edaphic, climatic, and evolutionary processes. Today natural species patterning is radically altered by human activities: thus, the role of humans on the ecology and distribution of plants and animals will be a fundamental theme examined by the course. Specifically, the course will cover: why biogeography is important; patterns and controls of species distribution (both biological and physical); natural and human disturbances; biodiversity; biomes and species adaptation; island biogeography (with examples from the Galapagos Islands); and, three hands-on application studies on the northeastern forest biome, northern wetland ranges and delineation, and tornado disturbance and community succession in northern forests. (LA) 
Prerequisites: JrS and 6 s.h. of GEOG, GEOG 202 recommended

GEOG 305 Geography and Planning of Water Resources 3 s.h. 
An analysis of the geographic distribution and redistribution of water resources, with an emphasis on the roles of planning, policy, and water law. Case studies (including the Colorado River and New York City water supply) illustrate the interplay between policy and science in water planning. Field trips. Offered alternate fall semesters. (LA)  
JrS, GEOG 100 and another 3 s.h. GEOG course.

GEOG 313 Transportation Planning for Smart Growth 3 s.h. 
An analysis of the spatial patterns of transportation. Work focuses on a description of transport networks and modes, and the movements of goods, people, and information. The course considers the principles and models governing spatial interaction and their utility in planning. Also, detailed examination of the importance of principles and practices of sustainability and smart growth in the design, creation and operation of modern transportation systems. (LA) 
Prerequisites: GEOG 210 or 227 or 233 or permission of instructor

GEOG 341 Geographic Information Systems: Advanced Methods 3 s.h. 
The study of various automated cartographic systems as they relate to geographic information systems and how they are used in geography, urban and environmental planning, and other related fields. Students will be introduced to various computer hardware and software located in the computer mapping lab. (LA) 
Prerequisites: GEOG 241 or 244

GEOG 348 Regional and Land Use Planning 3 s.h. 
Regional planning with respect to land use planning, coastal zone management, open space and economic development planning, and the planning of new towns. Theories of regional development planning. Policies and programs to control patterns of regional development relative to national, state, and local planning. (LA) 
Prerequisites: JrS and a 200-level GEOG course

GEOG 384A Disaster Geographies 1 s.h.
This service-learning field course entails a cultural immersion experience in a disaster-recovery zone, typically an urban area such as New Orleans. Students wil learn about disaster geographies (cultural complexities, role of physical landscapes, and environmental issues) surround the disaster event. Social justice issues and environmental problems will be stressed. The course meetings consist of a week-long immersion field trip to the site. Offered annually, typically in the Spring semester.

GEOG 384B Disaster Geographies 2 s.h.
Students will learn about disaster geographies (cultural complexities, role of phsycial landscapes, and environmental issues) surrounding the disaster event. Social justice issues and environmental problems will be stressed. Offered annually, typically in the Spring semester.

GEOG 385 Water and the Environment of Guatemala 3 s.h.
This international field course prepares students to find solutions to contemporary water resources problems and environmental issues in the developing world. Water and the Environment of Guatemala largely focuses on the water resources of Lake Atitlan and its watershed. Students will take water samples and analyze water quality data from Lake Atitlan and the surrounding drainage basin. Based on observations, interactions with local residents, and data collection, students will identify sustainable solutions to local water resources problems. Students will also be exposed to Guatemala's natural systems, from volcanoes and climate, to soils and biomes. This is an experiential course and active participation is required for successful completion. Permission of the instructor is required. Students must have a valid passport. Enrollment is limited and students must apply to participate during the preceding Fall semester. There is a special course cost associated with this class. This course will be offered during the Summer Semester. (LA)
Cross-Listed as: ENVS 385 and GEOL 385
Prerequisite: JrS and permission of instructor

GEOG 394 Special Topics in Geography 3-6 s.h. 
This course permits a group of students the opportunity to study, in depth, an advanced area of geography not covered by regular course offerings, or to explore new topics. Topics and instructors will be announced prior to preregistration. (LA) 
Prerequisites: JrS and 6 s.h. upper-level GEOG and/or related courses

GEOG 395 Teaching Assistantship in Geography 1-3 s.h. 
This course provides a college level teaching experience for students who are exceptionally qualified to undertake appropriate responsibilities and demands including such activities as tutoring, assisting in course preparation, participation in classroom presentations, and/or assisting in laboratory exercises. Students must be recommended by a departmental faculty member and have completed the appropriate coursework required for the particular assistantship. The precise responsibilities, amount of credit, and grading criteria will be agreed to and outlined in writing prior to the beginning of the course. A student may earn 1 to 3 s.h. of credit during a single assistantship depending upon specific responsibilities and demands. 
Prerequisites: JrS or SrS; a minimum of 9 s.h. in geography including the course for which the student will be T.A.; a minimum 3.0 GPA in GEOG; permission of instructor and Department Chair.

GEOG 397 Geography Internship 1-15 s.h. 
Internships in planning and other government agencies and in private businesses, consulting firms, and environmental associations are available to Geography students. On-campus internships are also available in the Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. 
Prerequisites: JrS, 12 s.h. of GEOG courses and permission of instructor

GEOG 398 Seminar in Geography 3 s.h. 
The philosophy, theory and methodology of geography, the history of geographic thought, the present status of the field, and significant research topics, techniques, and opportunities. (LA) 
Prerequisites: SrS and 12 s.h. of GEOG courses

GEOG 399 Independent Study in Geography 1-6 s.h. 
Directed work in specialized topics in geography under regular staff supervision. (LA) 
Prerequisites: JrS, appropriate GEOG courses and permission of instructor

Note: The following courses may be offered on an individual enrollment basis.
GEOG 235 Planning and Design in Metropolitan New York 
GEOG 242 Field Mapping and Mensuration 
GEOG 273 Geography of the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) 
GEOG 303 Regional Soils and Terrain Analysis 
GEOG 314 Marketing Geography 
GEOG 340 Advanced Cartography 
GEOG 343 Quan Geog & Plan Models 
GEOG 376 Geography of South Asia 
GEOG 378 Geography of Southwest Asia (The Middle East)


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